3D facial analysis shows biologic basis for gender-affirming surgery: Data-driven study improves guidance for adult craniofacial surgery

Gender-affirming facial surgery (GFS) is pursued by transgender individuals who desire facial features that better reflect their gender identity. Until now, there have been few objective guidelines to justify and facilitate effective surgical decision-making for gender-affirming facial surgery. In order to validate surgical decisions for GFS, researchers set out to quantify the effect of sex on adult facial size and shape through an analysis of three-dimensional (3D) facial surface images.

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