Know the political history and power struggle of Nepal… When, who and how elections were conducted?

Nepal Political History: The date of election in the neighboring country Nepal is near. Voting will be held here in a single phase on November 20 across the country. This time political instability is being considered as the election issue in Nepal. Promises are also being made by politicians to maintain political stability. The reason for this was also that no prime minister here has been able to complete his 5-year term.

To understand the political instability in Nepal, it has to be divided into two parts. There was a time when there used to be monarchy and the other time when democracy came. Due to the treaty with Britain in the year 1923, Nepal got sovereignty, but under the influence of India’s independence, democratic movements started in Nepal too. The Congress Party of Nepal intensified these movements. In the year 1951, the power of the Ranas came to an end. King Tribhuvan was made the constitutional head.

The year 1959 proved to be crucial

The year 1959 proved to be an important year in the politics of Nepal. In the same year, Nepal made its democratic constitution and the Congress party won a clear majority in the parliamentary elections. After this, a new turn came again and in the very next year i.e. in 1960, King Mahendra accused the government of corruption and dissolved the parliament. Then in the year 1962, in the name of basic democracy, he formed the Rashtrapanchayat without the cooperation of any party. The king himself chose the cabinet. After this, after his death in the year 1972, the throne was handed over to King Birendra.

Demand for constitutional reform

In the year 1980s, the demand for constitutional reform started gaining momentum again. The king agreed to direct elections to the National Assembly, but did not allow the formation of political parties. In the year 1985, the Congress party again started the movement. Subsequently paving the way for democracy, the then King Birendra accepted constitutional reforms and established a multiparty parliament with the king as head of state.

In May 1991, Nepal held its first parliamentary elections. Three years later, in 1994, a no-confidence motion was passed against the Koirala government. In the new elections, a communist government was formed for the first time, but this government was dissolved the very next year. In February 1996, the Maoist parties declared a people’s war against the monarchy and the elected government. The Congress party came to power in the 1999 elections and Krishna Prasad Bhattarai became the Prime Minister, but the following year he had to step down due to a rebellion in the party and Girija Prasad Koirala became the Prime Minister for the fourth time.

The biggest tragedy in the history of Nepal

1 June 2001 proved to be the most tragic day in the history of Nepal, when many members of the royal family including King Birendra and Queen Aishwarya were murdered. After the death of Birendra, his brother Rajkumar Gyanendra, who was against the democratic system in Nepal, became the king. After he became the king, suddenly the activities of the Maoist rebels of Nepal intensified. They managed to capture many parts of Nepal.

In May 2002, King Gyanendra dissolved the Parliament and imposed emergency. The Congress party expelled Deuba from the party. Deuba started leading the interim government. On 1 February 2005, Raja Gyanendra dismissed Deuba and took over all executive powers. The media and communication tools in Nepal were captured by the king.

King Gyanendra had to relinquish power

After this King Gyanendra followed the elected government for some time and then dissolved the elected parliament to gain autocratic power. In April 2006, another mass movement jointly launched by the democratic parties that concentrated most of the energy in Kathmandu led to a 19-day curfew. Eventually, King Gyanendra abdicated and reinstated Parliament.

On November 21,  2006  Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala and Maoist chairman Prachanda signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) 2006, which committed to democracy and peace for the progress of the country and people. On April 10, 2008, a Constituent Assembly was elected. On 28 May 2008, the newly elected Constituent Assembly declared Nepal a federal democratic republic, ending the 240-year-old monarchy.

But due to differences, the Constituent Assembly did not make a new constitution and the term had to be extended several times. Finally, a constitution was approved in the year 2015, but democracy was restored in Nepal, but there was constant instability in it. Since then, 10 different governments have ruled Nepal.

Read also: Nepal General Elections: Which party will give a fight to whom in Nepal, what is the election issue this time… know how hot politics is in the neighboring country

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